Apollo was a space programme from 1961 to 1972, funded and operated entirely by NASA. It was NASA's solution to President Kennedy's challenge of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the decade (1960s), in his famous Congress address on May 25 1961.
President Kennedy announcing the Moon mission programme May 25, 1961
CSM = command/service module. Apollo 2 and Apollo 3 were not flown, as a consequence of the rearrangement of missions subsequently to the fire. There were three pre-series test flights which were not numbered as Apollo missions: AS-201 (26.02.66, sub-orbital CSM), AS-202 (05.07.66, no spacecraft, hydrogen fuel test), and AS-203 (25.08.66, sub-orbital CSM).
|Mission||Launch/re-entry dates||Mission||Crew||Technical features||EVA||Notes|
|1||Due for Feb 21 1967, but did not launch||Planned test flight to Earth orbit||Gus Grissom, Ed White, Roger Chaffee||Tragedy caused delay in programme and changes to oxygen concentration in capsule atmosphere||Fire in command capsule during training, all crew perished|
|4||Nov 9 1967||Saturn V test flight||No crew||CSM in high Earth orbit||Tests of S-IVB restart, CM heat shield|
|5||Jan 22.3 1968, Saturn 1B||Earth orbit test flight||No crew||Lunar Module test|
|6||April 4 1968, Saturn V||Mission abort systems tests||No crew|
|7||Oct 11-22 1968, Saturn 1B||Earth orbit||Wally Schirra, Walt Cunningham, Donn Eisele||Block II CSM demonstration, TV broadcast|
|8||Dec 21-27 1968||Moon Orbit||Frank Borman, James Lovell, William Anders||First humans to leave Earth orbit, and first humans to orbit another body|
|9||Mar 3-13 1969||Test of LM and CSM with crews in Earth orbit||James McDivitt, David Scott, Russel Schweickart|
|10||May 18-26 1969||Moon landing dress rehearsal||Thomas Stafford, John Young, Eugene Cernan||LM descended to 15,000m of lunar surface||Tested every aspect of landing mission except the actual landing The command module was called Charlie Brown and the LM Snoopy|
|11||July 16-24 1969, Saturn V||First Moon Landing||Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins||Columbia (CSM) and Eagle (LM), Landing in Sea of Tranquility. 21.55 kg samples returned||EVA 2:31|
|12||Nov 14-24 1969||2nd Moon Landing||C. "Pete" Conrad, Richard Gordon, Alan Bean||Yankee Clipper (CSM) and Intrepid (LM). Landing in Ocean of Storms. Visited Surveyor 3 probe. 34.30 kg samples||2 EVAs, 7:45|
|13||April 11-17 1970||Third Landing (aborted)||James Lovell, Jack Swigert, Fred Haise||Odyssey (CSM) and Aquarius (LM).||Oxygen tank in service module exploded on route to Moon. Mission aborted. Crew returned safely but risk was high, as was media attention.|
|14||Jan 31 - Feb 9 1971||Third Landing on Moon||Alan Shephard, Edgar Mitchell, Stuart Roosa||Kitty Hawk (CSM) and Antares (LM). Landing in Fra Mauro. 42.80 kg samples.||2 EVAs, 9:21||Shephard hit two golfballs|
|15||July 26 - Aug 7 1971||Fourth Landing.||David Scott, Alfred Worden, James Irwin||Endeavour (CSM) and Falcon (LM). Landing in Hadley-Apennine. 76.70 kg samples||3 EVA, 18:33 + rover|
|16||April 16 - 27 1972||Fifth Landing||John Young, T. Kenneth Mattingly, Charles Duke||Landed in Plain of Descartes. 94.30 kg||3 EVA, 20:14 + rover|
|17||Dec 7 - 19 1972||Sixth Landing.||Eugen Cernan, Ronald Evans, Harrison Schmitt||America (CSM) and Challenger (LM). Landed in Taurus-Littrow. 110.40 kg samples||3 EVA, 22:02 + rover||Schmitt was a geologist. Cernan and Schmitt travelled 35.9km and ventured as much as 7.6km from the LM.|
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Heinrich Olbers was a German physician and passionate astronomer, whose name is immortalised as a paradox which challenged the best minds in science for a century: why is the night sky dark?
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