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Moon and Apollo


Apollo was a space programme from 1961 to 1972, funded and operated entirely by NASA. It was NASA's solution to President Kennedy's challenge of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the decade (1960s), in his famous Congress address on May 25 1961.


President Kennedy announcing the Moon mission programme May 25, 1961


Apollo 12
Charles Conrad of Apollo 12 visiting a lonely Moon veteran

CSM = command/service module. Apollo 2 and Apollo 3 were not flown, as a consequence of the rearrangement of missions subsequently to the fire. There were three pre-series test flights which were not numbered as Apollo missions: AS-201 (26.02.66, sub-orbital CSM), AS-202 (05.07.66, no spacecraft, hydrogen fuel test), and AS-203 (25.08.66, sub-orbital CSM).

MissionLaunch/re-entry datesMissionCrewTechnical featuresEVANotes
1Due for Feb 21 1967, but did not launchPlanned test flight to Earth orbitGus Grissom, Ed White, Roger ChaffeeTragedy caused delay in programme and changes to oxygen concentration in capsule atmosphereFire in command capsule during training, all crew perished
4Nov 9 1967Saturn V test flightNo crewCSM in high Earth orbitTests of S-IVB restart, CM heat shield
5Jan 22.3 1968, Saturn 1BEarth orbit test flightNo crewLunar Module test
6April 4 1968, Saturn VMission abort systems testsNo crew
7Oct 11-22 1968, Saturn 1BEarth orbitWally Schirra, Walt Cunningham, Donn EiseleBlock II CSM demonstration, TV broadcast
8Dec 21-27 1968Moon OrbitFrank Borman, James Lovell, William AndersFirst humans to leave Earth orbit, and first humans to orbit another body
9Mar 3-13 1969Test of LM and CSM with crews in Earth orbitJames McDivitt, David Scott, Russel Schweickart
10May 18-26 1969Moon landing dress rehearsalThomas Stafford, John Young, Eugene CernanLM descended to 15,000m of lunar surfaceTested every aspect of landing mission except the actual landing The command module was called Charlie Brown and the LM Snoopy
11July 16-24 1969, Saturn VFirst Moon LandingNeil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael CollinsColumbia (CSM) and Eagle (LM), Landing in Sea of Tranquility. 21.55 kg samples returnedEVA 2:31
12Nov 14-24 19692nd Moon LandingC. "Pete" Conrad, Richard Gordon, Alan BeanYankee Clipper (CSM) and Intrepid (LM). Landing in Ocean of Storms. Visited Surveyor 3 probe. 34.30 kg samples2 EVAs, 7:45
13April 11-17 1970Third Landing (aborted)James Lovell, Jack Swigert, Fred HaiseOdyssey (CSM) and Aquarius (LM).Oxygen tank in service module exploded on route to Moon. Mission aborted. Crew returned safely but risk was high, as was media attention.
14Jan 31 - Feb 9 1971Third Landing on MoonAlan Shephard, Edgar Mitchell, Stuart RoosaKitty Hawk (CSM) and Antares (LM). Landing in Fra Mauro. 42.80 kg samples.2 EVAs, 9:21Shephard hit two golfballs
15July 26 - Aug 7 1971Fourth Landing.David Scott, Alfred Worden, James IrwinEndeavour (CSM) and Falcon (LM). Landing in Hadley-Apennine. 76.70 kg samples3 EVA, 18:33 + rover
16April 16 - 27 1972Fifth LandingJohn Young, T. Kenneth Mattingly, Charles DukeLanded in Plain of Descartes. 94.30 kg 3 EVA, 20:14 + rover
17Dec 7 - 19 1972Sixth Landing.Eugen Cernan, Ronald Evans, Harrison SchmittAmerica (CSM) and Challenger (LM). Landed in Taurus-Littrow. 110.40 kg samples3 EVA, 22:02 + roverSchmitt was a geologist. Cernan and Schmitt travelled 35.9km and ventured as much as 7.6km from the LM.

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Isaac Newton

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Isaac Newton, 1642 - 1727