Julius von Sachs was a German botanist who was a pioneer of plant physiology.
Botany, photosynthesis, plant physiology
Professor of Botany at the Poppelsdorf Agricultural Institute (near Bonn), 1861 - 1867.
Professor of Botany at Würzburg University, 1868 - 1897
Member of the Bavarian Science Academy (Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften), 1874 - 1897.
Foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1885.
Sachs was a prolific writer, and produced more than 12 books which had enormous influence on the world of botany. Amongst these were:
Handbuch der Experimentalphysiologie, 1865 (Handbook of Experimental Physiology).
Lehrbuch der Botanik, 1868 (Textbook of Botany).
Vorlesungen uber Pflanzenphysiologie, 1882 (Lectures on Plant Physiology).
Geschichte der Botanik, 1875 (History of Botany).
Cell physiology, germination
Branching of roots
Explanation of photosynthesis and plant development.
Sachs developed the 'Auxanometer', an instrument for measuring the rate of plant growth by means of a pulley which amplifies the change in height of a plant.
Discovery and proof of starch. Sachs showed that a leaf deprived of light does not develop starch, by using iodine which colours starch.
Water culture methods and investigation of nutrition
Sachs is synonymous with the development of plant physiology in the second half of the 19th century. A brilliant experimentalist as well as theoretician, teacher and author, his contributions are unequalled to our understanding of plant growth, chloroplasts, photosynthesis and experimental techniques.
(Biographies of famous scientists no. 43)
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1792 - 1871
John Herschel is the son of William Herschel, and the nephew of Caroline Herschel, two famous astronomers. He continued his father's work, publishing enhanced catalogues of astronomical objects, but was also prolific in many other fields of science and technology, notably as a pioneer of photography.
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