Venus has an orbit, like Mercury, inside Earth's orbit. It is often called Earth's twin, but conditions on its surface are far from hospitable. It spins in the opposite direction to Earth and the other planets, with a day longer than its year!
Venus has a thick cloud layer, making observations of the surface impossible. Orbiters have managed to collate a complete map of the surface using radar, revealing a rugged, mountainous surface, pockmarked with craters and rifts.
There have been 41 missions to Venus.
Venera 1 and 2 both failed, but Venera 3 (1966) managed to crash-land a probe on the surface of Venus, the first spacecraft to reach another planet's surface.
Venera 4, 1967, released a descent capsule, which entered the atmosphere to make measurements of temperature, pressure and density. It analysed the chemical composition of the atmosphere, revealing the high concentration of carbon dioxide (95%).
Venera 5 and Venera 6 had similar missions, and as for Venera 4 contact was lost with their descent capsules before reaching the surface, due to battery drain and being crushed by the pressure while still 18km above the surface.
Venera 7 (1970) did however manage to reach the surface, and continued to transmit data about temperatures for 23 minutes.
Venera 8 (1972) also managed to land a probe, lasting long enough to report that the clouds formed a high layer, 35 km above the surface, and to analyse the crust's chemical composition with a gamma ray spectrometer.
1962, USA. The first successful mission to Venus, and to any planet. Mariner discovered that the rotation of the planet is opposite to the other planets, and the surface temperature is 425 °C.
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1710 - 1790
Johann Bernoulli (II) was the son of Johan (I), and the younger brother of Daniel and Nicolaus, all noted mathematicians.
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